The **vertex** of a parabola is the point where the parabola crosses its axis of symmetry. If the coefficient of the ${x}^{2}$
term is positive, the vertex will be the lowest point on the graph, the point at the bottom of the “$U$”-shape. If the coefficient of the ${x}^{2}$
term is negative, the vertex will be the highest point on the graph, the point at the top of the “$U$”-shape.

The standard equation of a parabola is

$y=a{x}^{2}+bx+c$.

But the equation for a parabola can also be written in "vertex form":

$y=a{(x-h)}^{2}+k$

In this equation, the vertex of the parabola is the point $(h,k)$.

You can see how this relates to the standard equation by multiplying it out:

$\begin{array}{l}y=a(x-h)(x-h)+k\\ y=a{x}^{2}-2ahx+a{h}^{2}+k\end{array}$.

This means that in the standard form, $y=a{x}^{2}+bx+c$, the expression $-\frac{b}{2a}$ gives the $x$-coordinate of the vertex.

**Example: **

Find the vertex of the parabola.

$y=3{x}^{2}+12x-12$

Here, $a=3$ and $b=12$. So, the $x$-coordinate of the vertex is:

$-\frac{12}{2\left(3\right)}=-2$

Substituting in the original equation to get the $y$-coordinate, we get:

$\begin{array}{l}y=3{\left(-2\right)}^{2}+12\left(-2\right)-12\\ \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}=-24\end{array}$

So, the vertex of the parabola is at $(-2,-24)$.